EV-101-2019: Security risk assessment for EV charging infrastructure

Assessment of the security risks for a typical EV charging infrastructure.

As part of the energy transition, there has been a large growth of electric vehicles on the streets. By June 2018, already one million electric cars were registered in Europe and almost a quarter of cars is expected to be electric in 2030.

The electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure is being expanded to keep up with this growth. Millions of charging stations will be placed throughout Europe. Many will be remotely controlled by Charge Point Operators (CPO).

These charging stations need to be protected against cyber-attacks. The electrical load that is controlled remotely by the CPOs, will soon be large enough to affect the stability of the European grid. If the power on a high number of charging stations would be switched off at the same time, this could lead to significant power outages.

ENCS has developed a security architecture for the EV charging infrastructure. The goal of this risk assessment is to show how the measures in this architecture sufficiently mitigate the security risks.


EV-401-2019: Security test plan for EV charging stations

Plan to test an EV charging station against the ElaadNL and ENCS security requirements.

ElaadNL and ENCS have developed a set of security requirements for procuring electric vehicle (EV) charging stations . The requirements are based on a risk assessment and a security architecture for the whole EV charging infrastructure. The security requirements can be used directly in the procurement process.

This document provides a standardized test plan to evaluate the charging stations against the security requirements. By standardizing the test plan, the test results can be shared between charge point operators. The vendor of the charging station can order a security test according to the test plan. If the charging station passes the tests, the vendor can use the test report to show compliance in all tenders that use the security requirements. This reduces the cost of testing and can give charge point operators assurance in advance that there are charging stations meeting the requirements.

The test plan consists of three phases:

  1. Functional tests and a vulnerability assessment by the vendor, usually performed during development;
  2. A review of development processes and security design and OCPP security conformance testing by an external lab;
  3. A penetration test by an external lab.

EV-390-2019: Market survey for electric vehicle charging

Results of a market survey on the security of electric vehicle charging stations held in November 2019.

ENCS has produced a set of security requirements that charge point operators can use for procuring secure charging stations. To verify that these requirements are feasible in the current market, ENCS has conducted a survey among charging stations vendors, asking if they can implement the most advanced requirements.


DA-401-2019: Security test plan for distribution automation RTUs

Plan to test an distribution automation RTU against the ENCS security requirements.

ENCS has developed a set of security requirement for procuring distribution automation (DA) remote terminal units (RTUs). When the requirements are used, the need arises to evaluate the RTU against the requirements. This document provides a standardized test plan to do this.

By standardizing the test plan, the test results can be more easily shared between grid operators. The vendor of the RTU can perform security tests according to the test plan and then use the test report to show compliance in all tenders that use the security requirements. This reduces the cost of testing and can give grid operators assurance in advance that there are RTUs meeting the requirements.

The test plan consists of three phases:

  1. Functional tests and a vulnerability assessment by the vendor, usually performed during development;
  2. A review of development processes and security design by the grid operator, usually performed during selection;
  3. A penetration test by an external lab, usually performed after the RTU has been selected.

DA-101-2019: Security risk assessment for distribution automation systems

ENCS has developed a security architecture for distribution automation systems. This risk assessment verifies that the measures proposed in the security architecture are enough to mitigate security risks. The risk assessment can also be used to select alternative measures if grid operators cannot implement some of the measures in the security architecture.


DA-390-2019: Market survey on distribution automation RTU security

Results of a market survey on the security of distribution automation (DA) remote terminal units (RTUs) held in November 2019.

ENCS has produced a set of security requirements that grid operators can use for this purpose. To verify that these requirements are feasible in the current market, ENCS has conducted a survey among RTU vendors, asking if they can implement the most advanced requirements. It also asks vendors about their future roadmap and plans to adjust future requirements.


EV-301-2019: Security requirements for procuring EV charging stations

This document specifies security requirements that charge point operators can use when procuring charging stations. The requirements can be used directly in tender documents. They cover the technical security features that the charging station should have, and the measures vendors should take to ensure the correct implementation of these features.

The document is an update of the EV Charging Systems Security Requirements from 2016. This is a draft version published to collect feedback from grid operators and vendors.

ENCS is creating this document in collaboration with ElaadNL.


EV-201-2019: Security architecture for EV charging infrastructure

This document describes a security architecture for electric vehicle charging infrastructure specifying the technical security measures charge poin operators can implement. The architecture can act as a blueprint for system integrators and the departments maintaining the system. The architecture is intended to be used together with an information security management system (ISMS) based on ISO 27001:2013 or similar.

ENCS is creating this document in collaboration with ElaadNL.


DA-301-2019: Security requirements for procuring DA RTUs

This document gives requirements for procuring secure RTUs for use in distribution automation systems, including:

  • medium to low voltage transformer substations;
  • medium voltage transport substations;
  • automatic circuit recloser controllers applied to overhead distribution lines.

The requirements concern the interfaces to the distribution automation system and the users on these interfaces. The measures are aligned with ISO/IEC 27001:2013. They are designed to fit as much as possible into the processes and procedures already in place in the organizations, and to find the needed balance between the assured security level, feasibility by vendors and the operational impact.

This harmonized set of requirements allows grid operators to get secure automation equipment more cost-effectively, saving their time and effort in developing requirements, as they are already freely available. It has been ensured that the requirements are feasible, as they have been tested in a market survey as well as in previous tenders by other operators. Lastly, these requirements save on implementation costs, as vendors get a common baseline to aim at, and only need to implement the security requirements once and then implement updates in their product roadmap.

The requirements are meant for procuring new RTUs, not for legacy systems, although grid operators may analyze which systems can be upgraded, updated or patched, once more, without disrupting the processes and procedures already in place.


DA-201-2019: Security architecture for distribution automation systems

This document provides a recommended security architecture for DA systems. The architecture can act as a blueprint for system integrators and the departments maintaining the system. Measures are chosen for the entire system, as this is usually more effective than choosing measures per component. It should be used as a reference by grid operators who are seeking to implement the RTU procurement requirements as suggested by ENCS. The architecture is intended to be used together with an information security management system (ISMS) based on ISO/IEC 27001:2013 or similar. Each subsection gives the relevant technical security measures to meet an objective in the ISO/IEC 27001 Annex A.

The distribution automation security architecture covers the central maintenance systems and field devices placed in the medium voltage grids, including in:

  • Medium to low voltage transformer substations
  • Medium voltage transport substations
  • Automatic circuit recloser controllers applied to overhead distribution lines

The architecture includes the interfaces of the DA system and the users on these interfaces. The architecture does not include the internal working on the infrastructure and makes no assumptions on it. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system is out of scope. It is considered as an external system accessing the distribution automation system.