The ENCS test lab evaluates the security of smart grid components. The lab can test:

  • Smart meters
  • Data concentrators
  • Remote terminal units (RTUs)
  • Electric vehicle charge points

Other components can be tested in customized projects.

Testing components against security requirements

ENCS tests components against a set of security requirements, chosen by the customer. This has several advantages:

  • grid operators can verify if a components complies with all procurement requirements
  • grid operators can compare results from different vendors or releases
  • grid operators can easily check if the scope of testing covers all risks
  • vendors can reproduce the test results to fix the issues

Test case sets available

The ENCS test lab has developed test cases for different sets of requirements, such as:

  • The ENCS requirements sets for smart metering, and distribution automation
  • The Oesterreichs Energie requirements catalog End-to-End security for smart metering
  • The Dutch Smart Meter Requirements (DSMR 2.2, DSMR 4, SMR 5, and ESMR 5)
  • The ENCS and Elaad security requirements for EV charge points

Test cases for other requirements set can be developed on request.

Steps in lab testing

Lab tests consist of four steps:

  1. Documentation review: verifies if the vendor’s implementation meets the requirements on paper.
  2. Functional testing: verifies that all required security functions are implemented as documented.
  3. Robustness testing: checks for input validation errors in the network stack. It is flooded with large amounts of traffic, and disrupted with malformed packets.
  4. Penetration testing: tries to hack the component with the same methods and tools as real cyber-attackers. Testers focus in particular on parts of the components not fully covered in the first three steps.

Hardware testing can be part of the functional  and penetration testing, depending on the risks a component faces. Source code reviews can be included for critical parts of the software.

Custom tools for smart meter testing

ENCS has developed a custom tool suite for testing smart meters and data concentrators. The tools automate the functional testing. They implement a fuzzer for robustness testing of the commonly used DLMS protocol.

The ENCS lab can run the tests over many communication channels:

  • PLC PRIME
  • G3-PLC
  • GPRS
  • CDMA
  • S-FSK PLC
  • Optical port
  • M-Bus (wired and wireless)